Thu, 25 Oct 2018 07:08:17 +0000
Vacuum furnace melting of nonferrous alloys
Melting and ingot casting of nonferrous alloys in vacuum furnace under atmospheric pressure until high vacuum (from less than 100 kPa to 1.3 x 10-10 Pa). It is an important modern smelting technology to produce refractory, rare and active metal materials, and to obtain high purity and high quality metal materials. Vacuum smelting began in 1917, when only a small amount of nickel-based alloys, thermocouple materials and resistance heating materials were smelted. During and after the Second World War, with the development of vacuum technology and the need of military industry and modern science and technology for new high-performance metal materials, vacuum smelting has developed rapidly. Titanium products began mass production in 1950s. In the 1970s there were tens or even hundreds of tons of vacuum smelting equipment, and now it has developed into an important production sector of special materials equipped with modern technology and equipment. Vacuum smelting is characterized by strong purification, volatile impurities, good degassing effect, strong deoxidizing ability, thermal decomposition of some nitrides and hydrides, and some chemical reactions which can not be carried out in the atmosphere, especially the reactions with gas products, so that high purity, uniform material, low gas content can be obtained. Metal materials with few impurities, few defects and excellent processability. High purity barium, hafnium, vanadium and thorium, superalloys, thermoelectric and magnetic materials, active metals titanium and zirconium, refractory metals tungsten, molybdenum, tantalum, niobium and copper and nickel alloys for electric vacuum are produced by vacuum remelting. The main vacuum smelting equipment and methods are vacuum induction furnace smelting, true arc furnace smelting (see non-ferrous alloy vacuum arc furnace smelting) and electron beam furnace smelting.
Vacuum induction furnace smelting is to put the inductor and crucible in vacuum, in 1.3 Electron beam furnace smelting is a process in which an electron beam is emitted by one or more electron guns in a high vacuum (1.3 x 10-1-1.3 x 10-5 Pa) to bombard a molten object and drop it into a water-cooled copper mold to form an ingot. Electron beam furnace melting is suitable for the smelting of ultra pure metals and refractory metals.
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